Keyword List


The keyword list is updated every January 1.

Authors are required to select 2–5 words that best describe the subject matter of their paper from this list; words that are not on the list cannot be matched with the keywords chosen by reviewers.

When listing keywords on the title page of your manuscript, do not include explanatory material that is within the parentheses. When you wish to specify, do so by using another keyword from the list. By using multiple keywords from the list you can narrow the focus of the subject matter (eg, Minimally invasive, Lobectomy). [incl ¼ includes]

The first keyword should specify one of the following main categories: (1) Valvular heart disease (2) Coronary heart disease (3) Congenital heart disease (4) Aorta (5) Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), Perfusion & Assist Devices  (6) Cardiac tumours (7) Heart (General Subjects) (8) Pericardium (9) Chest Wall (10) Lung (11) Trachea (12) Pleura  (13) Oesophagus (14) Mediastinum (15) Trauma (16) Thorax (General Subjects) (17) Diaphragm (18) Sympathectomy (19) Miscellaneous. The second keyword may also be chosen from the main categories if the article matches both. 


Ablation (all modalities, all applications) Acute coronary syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS Adhesives (tissue,chemical,etc.) Adult Airway (incl related subjects) Allograft, homograft Anatomy (specify organ, location, tissue, etc.) Anesthesia (incl related subjects) Aneurysm (specify location) Angiogenesis Animal model Antibiotics, antifungals, antiviral agents Antibody/antigen Aorta/aortic, aortic arch Aortic dissection (incl ulcers, hematomas) Aortic operation (operation on the aorta) Aortic root Aortic root replacement Aortic valve, repair Aortic valve, replacement Apoptosis Arrhythmia (incl any except AF) Arrhythmia therapy (incl abla- tion, surgery, drugs) Artery/arteries (incl any peripheral artery) Artificial organs Assist Devices Atherosclerosis Atrial fibrillation (AF), flutter Atrium Autograft (specify tissue) Autonomic nervous system


Biochemistry (incl proteomics) Bioengineering (incl physical modeling) Biomaterials (incl tissue substitutes) Bleeding; bleeding control Blood (constituents, factors, preparation, substitutes) Blood, coagulation/anticoagulation Blood management, conservation, consequences Brain, anatomy, imaging, function, assessment, injury, etc. Bronchial arteries Bronchial disease (incl injury, stenosis, tumor) Bronchial endoscopy, ultra- sound, EBUS Bronchial stents Bronchiolitis obliterans Bronchoplasty Bronchoscopy/bronchus (incl navigational)


Calcification (specify location or tissue) Cancer (specify organ or tissue) Cancer cell receptors Cancer screening tests (eg, lung, esophagus) Cardiac (use in combination) Cardiac anatomy/pathologic anatomy Cardiac catheterization/intervention Cardiac function, physiology Cardiac tumors (incl primary, metastatic) Cardiology/cardiologist Cardiomyopathy (any cause) Cardiopulmonary bypass, CPB (incl set-ups, equipment, surface coatings, etc.) CPB, inflammatory response, pathophysiology, complications Carotid arteries Cell biology/culture/engineering/bioreactors Cell signaling, receptors Cell transplantation Cerebral circulation (anatomy, physiology, pathology) Cerebral protection (incl perfusion, hypothermia) Chemotherapy (specify target) Chest Chest wall (incl reconstruction) Chyle (incl all diseases related to chyle) Circulatory hemodynamics Circulatory support (incl destination therapy) Circulatory support devices (LVAD, RVAD, BVAD, TAH) Circulatory temporary support (incl mechanical, balloon pump) Clinical trials (incl all designs) Coagulants (topical, systemic, experimental) Coarctation Collateral blood flow (specify location; eg, myocardium, brain) Co-morbidity (specify organ or system) Complement Computed tomography, CAT scan, CT scan Computer applications (incl simulation, modeling, artifi- cial intelligence, fuzzy logic) Congenital heart disease, CHD CHD, Fontan, Glenn CHD, great vessel anomalies; transposition, arterial switch CHD, heterotaxy CHD, hypoplastic left heart syn- drome, Norwood operation CHD, in adults CHD, miscellaneous (incl endomyocardial fibrosis) CHD, pulmonary arteries CHD, Rastelli operation CHD, septal defects CHD, tetralogy of Fallot CHD, truncus arteriosus CHD, univentricular heart CHD, valve (lesions, repair, replacement) CHD, vascular ring, interrupted arch Coronary heart disease Coronary artery bypass grafts, CABG CABG, arterial grafts CABG, venous grafts, prostheses Coronary artery disease (pathology, pharmacology, physiology, etc.) Coronary artery imaging (all modalities) Coronary endarterectomy Coronary sinus Coronary stents, PCI Coronary syndromes Cysts (specify location)


Database (incl use, related subjects) Defibrillation (incl related subjects) Delirium Device(refers to implanted devices) Diabetes mellitus Diaphragm (incl related subjects)


Echocardiography (all modalities, applications) Education (incl all levels, methods, trainees, subjects) Electrophysiology (incl mapping, pathology) Embolism (specify location, source, agent) Embryology (embryo studies, operations) Emergency (presentation, management) Emphysema/bullae Empyema (from any organism; management) Endarterectomy (specify vessel) Endobronchial valves, plugs Endocarditis (all infectious agents) Endoscopy/endoscopic procedures Endothelium (incl related subjects) Endovascular procedures/ stents, except PCI Epidemiology  Ethics Exercise (incl testing, therapy) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO


Fetal surgery/research Fibrin/fibrosis/fibrinolysis Fistula (specify location or organ) Foreign body (specify location) Frailty (specify criteria) 


Gastroepiploic artery Gastroesophageal reflux,GERD Gender Genes/polymorphisms/microarrays Gene therapy Genetic syndromes (eg, Marfan, Down, etc.) Genetics, genomics Geriatric (incl elderly)


Health economics (cost analysis, insurance, relative value) Health policy (incl government regulation, Obama Care) Health professional affairs, advocacy, regulation Health provider (arrangements, delivery/reimbursements) Heart (General Subjects) Heart failure (incl diagnosis, assessment, treatment) Heart valve prosthesis (specify type; eg, mechanical, bioprosthetic, etc.) Heart valve repair Heart valve replacement, autograft (incl tissue-engineered valves) Heart valve replacement, transapical, percutaneous Heart valves, multiple Hematology Hemoptysis Hemothorax (incl management) Hernias (specify location) Hiatal hernia Histology (specify tissue) History (medical, discovery) Hormones (systemic, tissue or cellular) Hydatid disease Hyperhidrosis Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy Hypothermia/circulatory arrest Hypoxia/reoxygenation


Imaging (all modalities; specify target) Immunochemistry Immunology Infection (specify agent and location) Inflammation, systemic Inflammatory cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) Inflammatory inhibitors Inflammatory mediators (eg, cytokines, cytotoxins, metalloproteinases) Inotropic/vasoactive drugs Interstitial lung disease Intralesional therapy (eg, cryo, radiofrequency, brachy, ultrasonic, etc.) In vitro studies (models, modeling, test apparatus, benchwork, etc.) Ischemia (specify organ or tissue) Ischemia/reperfusion injury (specify organ or tissue)


Kidney, renal function failure, dialysis


Larynx (incl related subjects) Learning aids (all methods, including CME) Liver, abdominal organs Lobectomy, segmentectomy, wedge resection Lung Lung, benign or congenitallesions Lung cancer, biology (incl antigens, receptors, gene mutations) Lung cancer, diagnosis (incl staging, imaging, fiducials) Lung cancer, neuroendocrine (incl carcinoid, small cell) Lung cancer clinical trials Lung cancer surgery Lung infection Lung pathology Lung physiology Lung volume reduction Lymph nodes (specify location)


Magnetic resonance imaging, MRI Malpractice (incl all related issues) Manpower (surgical) surveys, issues Mediastinal infection Mediastinal lymph nodes Mediastinal tumor (incl thymus) Mediastinoscopy Mediastinum Mesothelioma (incl related subjects) Metabolism (incl cell, organ, or body) Metastases/metastasectomy (specify primary and met locations) Microvascular surgery Minimally invasive surgery (incl all applications) Miscellaneous Mitral regurgitation (incl all etiologies) Mitral systolic anterior motion, SAM Mitral valve Mitral valve repair Mitral valve replacement Modeling (computer, mathematical, statistical, etc.) Molecular biology Myasthenia gravis Myocardial infarction (incl complications; eg, rupture) Myocardial injury (incl blunt, penetrating, iatrogenic) Myocardial ischemia, ischemic cardiomyopathy, aneurysm Myocardial mechanics (eg, stress, strain, contractility, etc.) Myocardial metabolism Myocardial morphology Myocardial protection/cardioplegia Myocardial remodeling (reshaping, constraining, ventriculectomy) Myocardium Myxoma


Neoadjuvant induction therapy Neonate Nerves, cranial or peripheral Neurocognitive deficits (incl related subjects) Neuroendocrine tumor Neurological testing, studies Neurology/neurologic (deficits, disease, injury) Nitric oxide Nursing (all aspects) Nutrition


Obesity (incl related subjects) Off-pump surgery Organ donor management (incl related subjects) Organ preservation, perfusion Organ regeneration Oesophageal biology/pathology/ staging Oesophageal cancer Oesophageal congenital anomalies Oesophageal injury/perforation, stents Esophageal motility disorders Oesophageal surgery, operations Oesophagoscopy/biopsy (incl fine needle biopsy) Oesophagus Oesophagus, Barrett’s Oesophagus, benign disease (incl diverticula) Outcomes (incl mortality, morbidity, survival, etc.)

Pacemaker (incl related subjects) Pacing, resynchronization/biventricular/all modalities Pain (incl related subjects) Pathology (specify organ or tissue) Pathophysiology (specify organ or system) Patient safety (all issues) Pectus excavatum, carinatum Pediatric Perfusion (specify organ or tissue) Pericardium (incl related subjects) Perioperative care (incl intraoperative care) Peripheral vascular disease (all non-thoracic arteries, except carotid) Pharmacology (specify target disease, organ or cell) Phrenic nerve (incl related subjects) Physical therapy, rehabilitation Physiology (specify organ or system) Plasma lipids (incl tests, statins) Platelets (incl inhibitors and related subjects) Pleura (incl fibrosis, decortication, tumor) Pleural airleak/effusion Pleural space (drainage, management) Pneumonectomy Pneumothorax Positron emission tomography, PET Postoperative care Practice guidelines (specify subject) Preconditioning (specify organ) Pregnancy Prematurity Preoperative care (incl related subjects) Prosthesis (specify organ or tissue) Pulmonary arteries/veins (incl normal and diseased) Pulmonary embolism, endarterectomy Pulmonary function (incl testing) Pulmonary valve (incl repair, prosthetic valves) Pulmonary vascular resistance/ hypertension


Quality care, management Quality of life (surveys, assessment methods, etc.)


Radiation-induced heart disease Radiation therapy (incl all modalities) Rehabilitation (within and outside hospital) Rejection (immunologic; specify organ) Reoperation (specify organ or site) Respiratory therapy Restenosis (specify tissue) Resuscitation (incl in- or out-of-hospital methods and devices) Revascularization (specify organ or tissue) Rheumatic disease Robotics (incl applications, related subjects) Ross operation


Sarcoma (specify tissue or organ) Shock (systemic, cardiac or circulatory) Shunts (specify anatomic location) Smoking (tobacco) Spinal cord, paraplegia, related subjects Statistics Statistics, Bayesian Statistics, clinical trial Statistics, meta-analysis Statistics, propensity matching Statistics, regression analysis Statistics, risk analysis/modeling Statistics, survival analysis Stem cells (incl related subjects) Stents (specify location) Sternum (incl related subjects) Stroke Surgery, complications Surgery/incisions/exposure/ techniques Surgical equipment (instruments, sutures, etc.) Sympathectomy, sympathotomy


Thoracic duct (incl related subjects) Thoracic outlet Thoracoplasty Thoracoscopy/VATS Thoracotomy Thorax (General Subjects) Thrombosis (specify location) Thymectomy Thymoma, thymic carcinoma Thymus Tissue engineering (incl valves, tissue, related subjects) Trachea Tracheal carina Tracheal injury Tracheal stenosis Tracheal surgery, stents Tracheal tumor Tracheostomy Transplantation, heart (incl related subjects) Transplantation, heart-lung (incl related subjects) Transplantation, lung (incl related subjects) Trauma (incl related subjects) Trauma, blunt Trauma, penetrating Tricuspid valve (incl related subjects) Tuberculosis (incl related subjects) Tumor biology (specify organ, location) Tumor markers (incl fiducials)


Ultrasound (all applications)


Valvular heart disease Vascular science (biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, etc.) Vascular tone and reactivity Venous disease Ventilation (incl related subjects) Ventricle, left Ventricle, right


Wound closure, healing, dehiscence (incl related subjects) Wound infection (incl related subjects)


Xenograft (incl related subjects)